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ASME PTC Air Heaters. ; Status: Active, Most Current; Document Language: English; Published By: ASME International (ASME). The Code on Definitions and Values (ASME PTC 2) defines the meaning and values of basic technical terms and numerical constants that are. Asme Ptc Air Heaters Bw () – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.

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Instead,performanceindicators such asthe measuredeffectivenessof the air- and gas-sidesand the X-ratio are compareddirectly againstdesign values. An air heater is shown schematicallyin Figure I.

Asme Ptc 4.3 Air Heaters Bw (1991)

Of interest is the fact that the uncertainty in the design of a heat exchangerestimatedby Jamesis much larger than the uncertainty in the estimateof the performance. 4.3 a numerical approach, Equation 16 must approximate the surfaceofthe function as a linear segmentparallel to the true functional relationship.

As previously mentioned, many of the crossproduct terms must be included in the bias calculationssince the sameequipment was usedto measurea parameter.

From college students and early-career engineers to project managers, corporate executives, researchers and academic leaders, ASME’s members are as diverse as the engineering community itself. Watts DOE, FETC With the increasedemphasison the efficiency of fossil-fuel-fired, steamgenerationfacilities, the performance of ancillary equipment is becoming increasinglyimportant. The velocity is calculated by: To evaluatethe bias error associatedwith the air temperatureat the inlet: Air leaked from outside of the air heaterinto the flue gasheating the primary air.

However, using the coal feedrate,from calibrated feeders,and gas compositions as a basecreatesa commonbond betweenthe air and flue gas flows. Normally the manufacturer will supply the purchaserwith designperformancecurves or equations,but not with those to calculatethe temperaturecorrectionsspecified by the PTC. This is discussedfurther in the appendix. Help Center Find new research papers in: Similarly, the gas density is calculated: The bias errors and random errors, a, for this calculation are listed in Table A-I.

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The appendix discussesthe proceduresused to determinethe individual measurementsand the uncertainty of these measurements. ASME serves this wide-ranging technical community through quality programs in continuing education, training and professional development, codes and standards, research, conferences and publications, government relations and other forms of outreach. For the details of the estimation of the uncertaintiesof other parameters,refer to the final Milliken project report8 Only the errors and uncertainty for theseother evaluations are presentedhere.

[PDF] ASME PTC – Free Download PDF

Theselatter temperaturecorrectionsare unique to a specific air heater. All of the other parametersare constants. Measurement Uncertain Part 1.

The uncertaintyanalysispresentedbelow contains the results for both the primary and secondarysidesof the air heater. The forms of these equationsagreewith the shapesof the curvesin Figures 2 and 3. The gas composition was determinedgenerally following the proceduresof EPA Method 3?. pfc

ASME PTC 4.3

The parametervalues used for the estimation of the uncertainty of the TCFGOT and the bias and random erroreassociatedwith them are shown below in Table I. This is achievedby evaluatingEquation 4 for the change in one parameterwhile holding the othersconstant.

To overcomethis, the PTC specifiesthat the measuredflue gas outlet temperaturemust be correctedfor differencesfrom design inlet air temperature,design inlet flue gas temperature,design X-ratio, and designflue gasrate. While the Asm code is often specifiedin equipmentwarrantees,it appearsto be rarely applied. Since the parametersh and4 were evaluatedat three times the bias error, o, greater and three times the aasme error lower than the actual value of the temperatureof the inlet air, the total delta is six times a.

The determinationof the temperaturecorrectionsfor differences from design X-ratio and design flue gas flow are left to the supplier or purchaserto determine. The algorithm was of the form: Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. Register for a trial account.

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The gas is qsme behave ideally and the velocity is constant over the entire cross-sectionalareaA. Calculation of the first two temperaturecorrectionsis explicitly defined by the ASME xsme. The design of the air heater was such. The bias and random errors are summedseparatelyto form the bias error statistic and the random error statistic, and then combined to estimatethe total uncertainty by: Similarly, for the deviation from the design entering flue gas temperature,the temperature correotion is: The following derivation assumesonly one test and thus representsthe maximum estimatederror.

The methods followed in deriving the estimatesof the uncertainty of the individual parametersarepublished by ASME. In operating plants, it is generally impossibleto establishdesign conditions to verify performance. Substituting Equation 8 into Equation 7 yields: Table A-I also lists the source of the bias and random errors for eachof the parameters.

Details of the air heaterperformanceand of the uncertainty analysis can be found in the referencedreports. Individual parametersrequired by the PTC 4. Remember me for one month.

In most air heaters,the majority of the air in the flue gasis leakagefrom the higher pressure, air- side of the air heater. The calculated value oftbe TCXGT from an air heaterperformancetest must be equal to or less than the design value for optimal air heaterperformance.

This createsa consistentbasis for the calculations.

ASME PTC Air Heaters. ; Status: Active, Most Current; Document Language: English; Published By: ASME International (ASME). The Code on Definitions and Values (ASME PTC 2) defines the meaning and values of basic technical terms and numerical constants that are. Asme Ptc Air Heaters Bw () – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.

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The appendix discussesthe proceduresused to determinethe individual measurementsand the uncertainty of these measurements. In the caseof Equation 15, the air leak introduces a significant non-linearity which invalidates this approach.

Thus, they apply to any air heater.

Asme Ptc 4.3 Air Heaters Bw (1991)

This is reflected in quation 10 where the X-ratio is correctedto the design leak of zero before being applied to the calculation of the temperaturecorrection. The uncertainty is shown as a percent of the final calculatedvalue.

The methods followed in deriving the estimatesof the uncertainty of ptcc individual parametersarepublished by ASME.

CO 20 mm 10Ppm Same co, 0. Errors in measurementsare of two types: Log In Sign Up. Secondly, since the dornimtnt errorsin the raw data are expressedaspercentages,the results shown in Tables A-II and A-HI, and in the main body of this paper, are independentof the absolute values of the parameters.

[PDF] ASME PTC – Free Download PDF

If the vendor baseshis Ssme correction curve on an X-ratio with a design leak, this plot should be correctedto zero leak before generating Equation 6.

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Equations similar to Equation 4 can be usedto estimatethe effect of one parameterindependentof the other parametersof the equationto obtain a temperaturecorrection for that parameteralone.

Background Error propagation is calculatedby Taylor Seriesexpansionof the resultant function. For many of the parametersexamined in this work, the parameterswere a independentand all of the terms in Equation Al were evaluated.

ASME PTC 4.3

Becauseof the non-linearity of the final equation, numerical approximationswete usedto determinethe differentials neededfor the propagation procedure. If these temperaturecorrectionsarenot provided by the equipment manufacturer as algorithms or plotsthey can be estimatedby the procedurepresentedin this pptc. ASME is a not-for-profit membership organization that enables collaboration, knowledge sharing, career enrichment, and skills development across all engineering disciplines, toward a goal of helping the global engineering community develop pt to benefit lives and livelihoods.

Biasesare associated with the measuring equipment or procedureand cannot be minimized by repeatmeasurements.

However, this derivation will be general. No items in cart. Help Center Find new research papers in: Are you sure you want to empty the cart? Founded in by a small group of leading industrialists, ASME has grown through the decades to include more thanmembers in countries. While xsme AShfE code is often specifiedin equipmentwarrantees,it appearsto be rarely applied.

Details of the air heaterperformanceand of the uncertainty analysis can be found in the referencedreports. Thirty-thousand of these adme are students.

Substituting 14 into Equation 11 and then expandingEquation 1 by substituting Equations2,3,11, and 12, along with the air heaterperformance correlations Equations5 and 6resultsin the following revised equation: The gas is assumedto behave ideally and the velocity is constant over the entire cross-sectionalareaA.

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In operating plants, it is generally impossibleto establishdesign conditions to verify performance. The fluid velocity is determinedby a Axme tube measurement. The bias and random errors were estimatedby separateerror propagationcalculationsfor standard,multipoint sampling arrays in the inlet and outlet ducts of the air heater. For the examplepresented,the estimateduncertainty is 4. The determinationof the temperaturecorrectionsfor differences from design X-ratio and design flue gas flow are left to the ptf or purchaserto determine.

For easeof analysis and of amse the uncertainty, theseplots were convertedinto mathematical expressionsof the form: Temperature Traverse Uncertainty Calculation The weight averagetemperatureof a gas flowing in a duct is basedon a flow weighted average of the temperaturesobtained from a standardtraverseof the duct.

The bias and random errors are propagatedseparatelyusing Taylor seriesexpansionsfor highly nonlinear equations: Similarly, for the deviation from the design entering flue gas temperature,the asem correotion is: Since the bias errors are not reducedby taking multiple measurements,the bias errors accountfor most of the uncertainty in the final averagetemperatureas shown in Table A-II.